Raphael, Ceiling of the Stanza della Segnatura
The Four Ceiling Tondos
For of the symbolism in the tondi, see the discussion of each of the murals over which they preside.
The Four Ceiling Panels
Each of the ceiling panels corresponds to one of the murals below:
Adam and Eve -- The Disputations
The Prime Mover -- The School of Athens
Judgment of Solomon -- The Virtues
Apollo and Marsayas -- Parnassus
Fettered Giants, the offspring of Earth
The Justice of Junius Brutus who condemned his own sons to death for their part in the Tarquinian Conspiracy. He also ordered the destruction of the Tarquinian fields, whose crops thrown into the Tiber, formed a mass of new soil, the Campus Martius.
Amphitrite fleeing Neptune hides herself on the Island of Atlas.
Standing on a dolphin, Amphitrite holds a sail so that the wind may speed her journey.
The forge of Vulcan
Mucius Scaevola placing his hand in the burning flame of the altar
Satyr pouring water on the heads of lovers a pair of lovers
The Sabine Mettius Curtius, rather than submitting to the pursuing Romans, leads his horse into the waters of the swamp which became known as the Lacus Curtius.
See also Edgar Wind ("The Four Elements in Raphael's 'Stanza della Segnatura,'" Journal of the Warburg Institute, II, 1937/38, pp.75-79
Keystone Panel with Papal Coat of Arms
The two crossed "Keys of Peter" represent the divinely-given papal power to bind and release events on earth.
Above the keys, the tiara symbolizes the supreme authority invested in the papacy.