Raphael, Ceiling of the Stanza della Segnatura
The Four Ceiling Tondos
For the symbolism in the tondi, see the discussion of each of the murals over which they preside.
The Four Ceiling Panels
Each of the ceiling panels corresponds to one of the murals below:
Adam and Eve -- The Disputations
The Prime Mover -- The School of Athens
Judgment of Solomon -- The Virtues
Apollo and Marsayas -- Parnassus
Top: Roman Consul Lucius Junius Brutus sentences his own sons to death for their atempt to reinstate monarchy in Rome by raising Lucius Tarquinius Superbus to the throne.
Bottom: giants bound to the earth
Top: Amphitrite fleeing Neptune hides with protectors on the Island of Atlas.
Bottom: Amphitrite, mounted on a dolphin, uses the wind in a sail to flee from Neptune
Top: Mucius Scaevola, to emphasize his willingness to suffer pain in the service of Rome, thrusts his right hand in the burning flame of the altar of the Etruscan king
Bottom: Vulcan at his forge
Top: The Sabine Mettius Curtius, rather than surrendering to the pursuing Romans, commits suicide by drowning in the marshy waters of the Lacus Curtius.
Bottom: Satyr anoints the heads of lovers a pair of lovers
Keystone Panel with Papal Coat of Arms
The two crossed "Keys of Peter" represent the divinely-given papal power to bind and release events on earth.
Above the keys, the tiara symbolizes the supreme authority invested in the papacy.